Nd yag pulsed laser is an excellent tool for structural modification and treatments of lignocellulosic materials lignin suffers great weight loss and structural changes due to irradiation process while degradation effects on cellulose samples appear to be negligible. Chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials doi link for chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials book edited by david n s hon edition 1st edition first published 1996 ebook published 25 october 2017 pub location boca raton. This review discussed the last 10 years progress in the use of lignocellulosic materials chemically modified as low cost biosorbents thus the chemical modifications such as chemical pretreatment oxidation as well as the grafting of carboxyl groups amines amides etc on lignocellulosic fibers that aim to increase the number of adsorption sites and maximize toxic metal ion adsorption . Modification in the preparation of adsorbent materials are halo genation esterification amination etherification and oxidation however the fibers generally undergo a physical or chemical pretreatment prior to the chemical modification figure 1 shows the structure of cellulose and lignin pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass
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